Abstract：The South China Sea issue derives from complicated historical and political backgrounds, which interacts with geopolitical situation and the development of international maritime law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Nowadays, the South China Sea issue has already been closely linked with the deconstruction and reconstruction of regional maritime order. The chronic South China Sea issue reflects many factors of disorder, such as disrespect of post Second World War regional order arrangement, limitations of UNCLOS and lack of regional mechanisms. More importantly, the South China Sea issue reflects the geopolitical gaming among maritime powers regarding the maritime rules and order. For China, the opportunities come together with challenges. China should take holistic attitudes towards the solution of South China Sea issue and the construction of regional maritime order, and make all efforts to turn the South China Sea as the sea of peace, friendship and cooperation.