Since the 1980s, the development of sustainable fisheries and the protection of marine ecosystem have gained global significance, which become the hot issues in global marine fisheries governance. A review of relevant international treaties and rules shows that the development trends of global fisheries governance are vulnerable marine ecosystem has been highlighted; applications of ecosystem approach in marine living resources management are being emphasized; protection of marine biodiversity in the area beyond national jurisdiction is being enhanced; management of deep sea fisheries is being strengthened, and the development of sustainable fisheries will be promoted. Features of global marine fisheries governance are the role of regional fisheries management organizations in global fisheries governance has been reinforced; more responsibilities and duties should be shouldered by flag states; implementation standards for the conservation and management of fisheries resources are being clearly defined; combating illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing has become priority in fisheries governance; cooperation in enforcement should be promoted and the effect of enforcement should be improved; and close attention should be paid to impacts of aquaculture on marine ecosystem. In the context of promoting “The Belt and Road”, improving the awareness of marine
ecosystem protection, promoting the capacity to fulfill relevant responsibilities, and carrying out the duties of flag state are principal challenges that Chinese marine fisheries face.