Since coming into power, the Duterte administration has actively adjusted its policy on the South China Sea. It is the combined effect of various factors, both internal and external environment, which rooted in the pragmatic and rational choice to realize the maximization of national interests. The Duterte administration still faces many constraints on implementing and advancing the current policy on the South China Sea, mainly including the domestic political pressure, the diplomatic pressure to seek a balance among major powers, and the pragmatic attitude towards the result of the South China Sea arbitration. With regard to the prospect of Duterte administration'policy on the South China Sea, it is closely related to the trend of Philippine domestic politics, the trend of US-Philippines relations and Japan-Philippines relations, as well as the trilateral interaction among China, the Philippines and the US. Therefore, China needs to pay close attention to, and carefully assess the trend of relevant situations in order to make a plan in time.