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2016 Vol. 24, No. 11  Published: 25 November 2016
The Approach of Biodiversity Offsets for Mineral Exploitation in the International Seabed Areas
REN Qiujuan; MA Fengcheng
2016, 24(11): 1-11  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   [PDF (0 KB)  ( 662 )
Biodiversity offsets schemes could not only mitigate the net loss resulting from mineral exploitation in the International Seabed Areas, but also distribute the revenue obtained from exploiting the common heritage of mankind and protect the seabed environment among different stakeholders. Biodiversity offsets are an action designed to compensate for significant residual adverse biodiversity impacts arising from mineral exploitation, therefore it could be possible to pursue a balance among them. Areas of Particular Environmental Interest (APEIs) are appropriate “no net loss offset location” for which the International Seabed Authority fulfills the habitat offsets through marine spatial planning. Meanwhile, Conservation Trust Funds could eliminate negative externality through payment for environmental services so that to orientate towards the goals of financial offsets, especially marine scientific research activities in the APEIs should be promoted and encouraged by the establishment of Seabed Sustainability Fund. The International Seabed Areas is the common heritage of human beings, which requires that the International Seabed Authority should take a significant position in the approach of biodiversity offsets for mineral exploitation.
Brief Study on the Issues of Loss and Damage Caused by Climate Change and Their Regulations of International Law
2016, 24(11): 12-22  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   [PDF (0 KB)  ( 678 )
The issues of loss and damage caused by climate change has been a hot topic again amongst developed and developing countries on the agenda of COP21 in Paris, as have the final results of the conference. According to the future trend of development of international law and the complexity of the issues of loss and damage caused by climate change, this paper argues that the international community should establish an international mechanism under the UNFCCC framework to solve these issues and actively learn from the experiences of the International Disasters Reduction Framework; and meanwhile regard the System of International Damage Compensation as a supplementary tool. As observed, development of State Responsibility is prior to the development of Trans-boundary Environmental Tort System.
"One-Belt One-Road": China’s Eurasian Integration Strategy and Atlanticism Hot!
LIU Changming Serafettin Yilmaz
2016, 24(11): 56-66  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   [PDF (0 KB)  ( 658 )

This paper constitutes an attempt to investigate China’s OBOR project and the prospects for greater Eurasian economic and political integration. It compares China’s development-oriented strategy in Europe with the security-driven strategy of the US and investigates how the two paradigms relate to present-day international relations, holding that China’s Eurasian program provides Europe with an alternative for the security-oriented Atlanticism. It argues that, by introducing an essential developmentalist agenda in the Eurasian economic and political context, the OBOR project promotes multipolarity, mutual trust, greater economic prosperity, easing of security concerns and a new developmentalist discourse, which may eventually lead to the weakening of Atlanticist alliance. However, it recognizes that, aside from the fact that the material and ideational fundamentals of Atlantic alliance remain strong, China’s Eurasian drive will likely encounter numerous challenges as the OBOR program expands.

Outer Space Information Support:Strategic Hub of Powers Security Game Hot!
XU Nengwu
2016, 24(11): 67-77  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   [PDF (0 KB)  ( 666 )
A wide range of practical use of outer space information support in the military has become a direct impetus for the birth of joint operations and has played a crucial role in the war. In information warfare, combat forces in land, sea and air that carry out joint operations have been increasingly relying on the information safeguarding provided by outer space information support. Outer space information support is the core element that information warfare upgrades the system operations, which promotes the organic integration of a variety of combat forces, combat units and combat elements and form system operational capability based information systems. Outer space information support plays a crucial role in seizing the power of control information and fully demonstrate security effectiveness of system operation based information systems. Outer space information support stirs up a new trend of wide, complex, transparent, direct in the system operation, and its performance and effects becomes a power’s multiplier in the interaction of powers’ security. Development of outer space information support capabilities has led to a transfer of international political power towards outer space, which underscores the importance of outer space governance issue. Balance of power in outer space determines the prospect of outer space coordination and cooperation.

The Paris Agreement, a New Global Climate Governance, and China’s Choice Hot!

YU Hongyuan
2016, 24(11): 88-96  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   [PDF (0 KB)  ( 671 )

The Kyoto Model of Climate governance was marked by its ineffectiveness. Under the Kyoto Impasse, the political structure and norms of the multilateral climate negotiations have gone through an incremental but substantial change. In the meantime, sub- and non-state climate governance regimes have also expanded globally. In this context, the Paris Agreement that was achieved in 2015 served as a major institutional input that may strengthen or alter existing trends of global climate governance. The Paris Agreement institutionalized a series of new consensus among states that were reached through several rounds of negotiations prior to the global submit in 2015. It turned the global emission reduction system from one based on North-South separation to one based on universal but voluntary burden sharing. In addition, the Paris Agreement granted legitimacy and authority to sub- and non-state climate governance initiatives, promoted global economic decarbonization. This may certainly open a new ground for major power competition over clean technology, products’ emission standards, low carbon economic rules, and so on. China should be ready to both adapt and to construct the changing global climate governance system. It should accelerate the decarbonization of its national economy, while also seeking to promote the diffusion and authorization of Chinese plans, standards, rules for climate governance.

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