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2019 Vol. 27, No. 2  Published: 28 February 2019
 
The Dynamic Mechanism of Maritime-Land Countries’ Strategic Transformation and Its Enlightenment for China
QIN Lizhi
2019, 27(2): 1-12  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (1011 KB)  ( 1888 )
Abstract
This paper combines the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism and geopolitics to analyze the dynamic mechanism of maritime-land countries’ transformation from continental powers to maritime powers. The dynamic mechanism consists of the structure, unit and subunit elements. The structure involves geo-pattern, geographic interaction and the balance between offense and defense, and the three parts altogether shape the inclusive or restrictive strategic environment of the countries. The unit and subunit elements cover strategic doctrine, paths of rising, capacity to absorb domestic resources and mobilize, and domestic economic transformation, which respectively influence the perception, decision-making, and enforcement of the national strategic decision. As an independent variable, external strategic circumstances function in the strategic transformation only after being filtered by the mediating variable of national strategic decision-making level, and the efficacy of independent variable is inversely proportional to that of mediating variable. China’s transformation to a maritime power is confronted with challenges unique to the times such as historical background, strategic environment, the path of rising, strategic doctrine, and the ability to absorb resources as well as mobilize. The optimal path of China’s transformation is to take the defensive mode in which the continental power dominates while complemented by the maritime power. Such a path could make a balance between “keeping a low profile” and “being proactive in actions”, and avoid the tragedy of over-expansion in the rise and strategic transformation of the great power.
Cultural Attributes in Shaping the Vision of International Order—On the Cultural Origin of ‘the Building of a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind’ Hot!
SUN Tong, LIU Changming
2019, 27(2): 13-24  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (1103 KB)  ( 823 )
Abstract
A country’s vision of international order, to a large extent, reflects its cultural attributes. As an elementary constituent of the inherent national attribute, cultural attributes exert a subtle influence on the country’s perception of national interests and the world at both the national and the individual level. Therefore, the vision of the international order of the country is obviously endowed with its own cultural characteristic. “The building of a community of shared future for mankind”, as China’s vision of international order for a new era, is also influenced by traditional Chinese cultural attributes. Such a vision not only contains a profound cultural connotation with an emphasis on unity and harmony, but also is the creative transformation and development of the traditional Chinese value of “harmonious coexistence” in the contemporary exchanges among countries.
WTO Reform: Challenges, Progress and Prospects Hot!
KE Jing
2019, 27(2): 25-37  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (1043 KB)  ( 1456 )
Abstract
Since its foundation, the high heterogeneity among its membership, the difficulty in coordinating members’ interests, coupled with the principle of consensus decisionmaking, WTO negotiations repeatedly come to an impasse and substantive progress is difficult to achieve in its reform. WTO negotiations repeatedly come to an impasse and substantive progress is difficult to achieve in its reform. Recently, the US, becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the interest distribution in the current international economic system, tries to reform the WTO with countries sharing similar ideals and beliefs, with the aim to pressure China into changing its way of economic growth. WTO reform is becoming more complicated since it involves competition of rules among the great powers. The expanding regionalism may also be turned into tools for geopolitical competition, thus posing an even greater threat to the institutional basis of the multilateral trading system. China should resolutely defend the multilateral trading system and propel the reform toward fairness, inclusiveness, and openness. While accelerating the pace of reform and opening up, China should narrow the divergence of rules with Western countries within reasonable scope, ensure that due attention is given to addressing development appeals of developing countries, and safeguard WTO’s purposes and principles.
The Global Diaspora and Ethnic Separatist Movement
LIU Peng
2019, 27(2): 38-49  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (989 KB)  ( 809 )
Abstract
Consensus and Disputes of Macroprudential Global Financial Governance
ZHANG Falin
2019, 27(2): 50-62  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (1055 KB)  ( 604 )
Abstract
Since the global financial crisis in 2008, macroprudential financial regulation has become a new core of global financial governance, and national and international regulators have reached consensus on the idea and practice of macroprudential regulation. Ideational consensus lies in cognition of the conceptual and empirical origin, policy objectives, and inner logic of macroprudential regulation, while practical consensus mainly relates to the development of international institutions regarding macroprudential regulation. These international institutions specifically involve the identification and measurement of systemic risks and policy tools coping with time⁃dimension and cross⁃section⁃dimension systemic risks. Despite these ideational and practical consensuses, macroprudential global financial governance still faces many disputes and debates,including diversified categorization of policy tools, differentiation and challenges of institutional structure,gap of policy implementation, deficiency and difficulty of comprehensive assessment, spillover and ambiguity of policy application, fluctuation of major powers’ policies, and erosion of consensus among major economies. Consolidating consensus and handling disputes are crucial to secure the persistent improvement of global financial governance.
Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative with Land-Sea Coordination Hot!
ZHANG Yuanpeng、ZHANG Li
2019, 27(2): 63-70  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (1393 KB)  ( 1587 )
Abstract
The Belt and Road Initiative innovatively proposes the thought of land-sea coordination, endowing the ancient Silk Road a new connotation. Globally, land economy arises earlier and is more mature than the marine economy. Therefore, the key to land-sea coordination and the Belt and Road Initiative, at the present stage, lies in further enhancing the supporting and leading role of the marine economy. On the basis of exploring the conception of land-sea coordination for a new era, the paper proposes that China should cooperate and coordinate with the countries along the three blue economic passages in national marine development policy, infrastructure connectivity, and marine industry, which will contribute to an efficient flow of factors of production among countries along the belt and the road, shaping the win-win partnership.
Construction of the China⁃Africa Blue Partnership from the Perspective of Global Ocean Governance
HE Jian、WANG Xue
2019, 27(2): 71-82  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (999 KB)  ( 1092 )
Abstract
Developing the China⁃Africa Blue Partnership is the result of China’s continued efforts to push forward bilateral and multilateral maritime cooperation, and a realistic requisite for China to substantively participate in global ocean governance. Construction of the China⁃Africa Blue Partnership in the context of global ocean governance shares advantages while also faces some problems. Developing the China-Africa Blue Partnership will demonstrate the mighty energy of South⁃South cooperation in the field of global ocean governance, which contributes to building a fair and equitable international ocean⁃political relationship, developing a sustainable global blue economy, promoting the building of “ a community with a shared future for the ocean”, and improving the global marine ecosystem. In order to establish the China⁃Africa Blue Partnership, we should rationally choose prioritized areas and countries to conduct maritime cooperation,with a focus on accelerating China’s modernization of maritime governance system and maritime governance capacity. In the same time, China should also do a good job in coordinating with extraterritorial powers. Last but not least, special attention should be paid to promote the synergy of UN agendas with the African Development Plan, and contribution should be made to the resolution of disputes in global ocean governance and the improvement of global ocean governance mechanisms.
On the Justice of Identifying and Verifying the US Unmanned Submersible by the Chinese Navy
ZHANG Huang
2019, 27(2): 83-92  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (975 KB)  ( 941 )
Abstract
Exploring and demonstrating the justice of the Chinese navy defending underwater safety not only contributes to revising and developing the theoretical system of classic justice war theory, but also provides the Chinese military activities with a basis of legitimacy in international opinion. Based on a case study of the incident that ‘the Chinese naval identifies and verifies the unmanned submersible of the US military’ at the end of 2016, the paper analyzes the US military’s use of military submersibles to carry out military detections in the Chinese coastal areas which goes against the theoretical interpretation of ‘aggression’, ‘self-defense’, and ‘pre-defense’ in the classic justice war theory. The purpose of the Chinese Navy’s operations in the South China Sea is to prevent underwater unidentified devices from jeopardizing the navigation and personnel safety of passing ships. It by no means indicates the expansion of the territorial sea, and it in no way interferes the freedom of navigation in relevant waters of the South China Sea. Such a practice of the Chinese Navy is justified in exercising the right of pre⁃defense, and the entire identification process follows the principle of distinction and appropriateness, which conforms to stipulations of the classic military ethics theory on the justice of military operations.
The Exploration of the Ancient and Modern Measuring Points of the South China Sea: Scientifically Positioning in accordance with the Pictures
SHEN Wenzhou
2019, 27(2): 93-100  |  Full text (HTML) (1 KB)  | PDF   PDF (2618 KB)  ( 939 )
Abstract
“ Four seas measurement” in the Yuan dynasty is the latitude surveying in ancient China,namely astronomical surveying or astronomical geodetic surveying. The combined survey for the islands and reefs in the South China Sea research in the 20Th century is not only the innovation project of marine research in China, but also the first ever marine geodetic survey in the South China Sea. The paper overviews the “four seas measurement” and the “combined survey for the islands and reefs”, and juxtaposes the ancient South China Sea survey points calculated by professor Han Zhen-hua and the contemporary geographical position of Huangyan Island on the same picture, which provides a precise and reliable scientific basis for the research and verification of the South China Sea survey points in the “four seas measurement”.
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